Everyone experiences inertia. Travelling in a train or bus, we know that when the driver applies the brakes we are thrown forward and that when he accelerates we are thrown backwards. What tends to keep one’s body moving when the vehicle stops or accelerates, is commonly called inertia, that is, inertial or force-free motion.

The same goes for travellers in a spaceship. In a natural – that is a force-free – orbit, with everyone floating freely around, when a thruster is operated to accelerate the ship, they all drift in the direction opposite to that of the accelerating force.

Now no-one needs a degree in Physics or Mathematics to understand that. It is a common enough experience, whether one is travelling in a terrestrial vehicle or a spaceship. But why does this happen? It is simply because, left to itself, everything seeks to travel in a natural force-free orbit; that is to say, inertially. Take, for example, the orbiting spaceship. Everything physically connected with that vehicle, including its passengers, is orbiting, in the same forceless angular momentum relation to the earth, the sun, the moon, or whichever of these bodies is taken as the centre of orbit. This not due to ‘gravitation’. It is an immediate and instantaneous angular momentum correlation in which the bodies concerned are reciprocally balanced with one another in such a way that if one of the bodies is forced to change its orbit the others are instantly affected. Any delay in the transfer would disconserve the overall balance of angular momentum in the interim, which cannot happen. This is why, when a bus-driver or an astronaut makes an accelerating or braking action  the effect of that force on himself and his passengers is immediate. That is to say, he doesn’t have to wait for the influence of his action to reach distant bodies and then return at some finite speed for them to feel the visceral effect. As Mach is reported to have said, ‘When the subway train jerks, it is the fixed stars that throw you down’ [[1]].This is what has been called Instantaneous Action at a Distance (IAAAD) which has been the subject of much scientific discussion in recent years [[2]].  

Instantaneous Action-at-a- Distance (IAAAD).

There is, then, no straight-line inertial motion of the sort Newton imagined. In reality, all true inertia is force-free orbital angular momentum, and all accelerating forces are torques of one kind or another. This instantaneous distant action is claimed by quantum physicists to be an experimental fact. They maintain that in the case where a particle is split, when the spin angular momentum of the one part is changed, the other part responds immediately, regardless of the distance between the two, so that the parity of the two is conserved [[3]]. The same applies on the astronomical level in what is known as perturbation. This is where the orbit of one astronomical body immediately correlates with that of another, as they all do in a conserved angular momentum nexus such as, for instance, that of our solar system.

Plainly, then, all the evidences, on all levels, from  microphysics to astrophysics, are that in all systems of conserved angular momentum, in which objects are, by definition, paired and reciprocally balanced, a change in any one of them automatically and immediately affects the others. This is without need of any in vacuo ‘centripetal force’, of ‘gravitation’, ‘coulomb force’, ‘nuclear force’ or whatever. In the Pope Osborne Angular Momentum Synthesis, known by its acronym POAMS,  all ‘inertial’ motion is orbital, and all space is defined in the Machian way as existing, not in itself but only in relation to actual bodies and their motions, which makes ‘inertial space’ essentially non-static and non-Euclidean, with all that this entails for the Neo-Machian New Physics of Normal Realism.

[1] Tom Phipps. Jr. in his book Heretical Verities, Urbana, USA

[2] See, e.g. the collection of conference papers: Instantaneous Action in Modern Physics, Pro and Contra. Eds. Andre E. Chubykalo, Viv Pope, and Roman Smirnov-Rueda, Publ. NY, USA.

[3] There is nothing esoteric meant, here, by this word ‘parity’. It means, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, ‘being on a par or at par: equivalence’. In this present context it is taken to mean pairing.